DIY Arduino PCB Pryamiduino

pryamdiuino-r1-and-apple-remote

A how-to on designing a DIY Arduino PCB Pryamiduino from Bald Engineer:

Continuing the DIY Arduino tutorial series, this AddOhms episode shows how to create a PCB in KiCad. I make a joke that the original design was a rectangle, which I found boring and pointless. So instead, I designed a triangle to give the board 3 points. Get it? Puns! I am calling it the Pryamiduino. To be honest, I found not having a constraint to be a problem. By forcing a specific board size and shape, many decisions were more manageable.

More details at Bald Engineer’s blog.

Check out the video after the break.

ESP32 (32) – BLE, iBeacon

In my previous article I explained the Bluetooth Low Energy technology and the advertising process.

You learned that a BLE device can leverage the advertising packets to send data; in this case the device is called broadcaster and the devices which receive data are called observers.

The payload of an advertising packet has the following structure:

ibeacon-002

ADV ADDR is the device MAC address (this is the address displayed by the program developed in the previous article) and ADV DATA is a field, with a max length of 31 bytes, that contains one or more structures, each with 3 elements:

  • AD length is the total length (in bytes) of each data structure
  • AD type is the type of data contained in the structure
  • AD data is the real data

The official website of the Bluetooth Special Interest Group lists all the available AD types.

A device, for example, can transmit its local name using the AD type 0x09:

ibeacon-003

In scan mode, the Bluetooth driver returns to the program the received data (ADV DATA) in the scan_result->scan_rst.ble_adv array. This array contains uint8_t values and it’s size is scan_result->scan_rst.adv_data_len.

The Bluedroid library contains a method, esp_ble_resolve_adv_data(), which allows to get the value for a specific AD type passing the raw data. The header file esp_gap_ble_api.h contains definitions for the most common AD types:

ibeacon-004

In my Github repository you can find an updated version of the scan program. Thanks to what explained above, now the program can also display – if available – the name of the device:

ibeacon-009

iBeacon

A particular family of broadcaster devices are the iBeacons. These devices have been designed by Apple to allow interaction with IOS devices (iPhone …) based on location awareness. Let’s make an example: an iPhone can “notice” that it is close to a particular iBeacon, associated with a room in a museum, and therefore offer the user a brief guide to the exhibited works.

ibeacon-001

iBeacon specifications are available on Apple’s developer portal. iBeacons work transmitting advertising packets with  specific payload (ADV DATA):

ibeacon-006

The first structure has AD type = flags (0x01). Each bit has a different meaning, usually iBeacons use 0x0A value for AD data.

The second structure has type = 0xFF, that is Manufacturer Specific Data. The Bluetooth standard allows the different manufacturers to use this ID to transmit custom data. The total data length is 25 bytes (0x1A – 0x01 that is the length of the AD type field).

Apple specifications further subdivide the AD data field in several elements:

ibeacon-008

The first field is the manufacturer/company; iBeacons normally use the code 0x004C, assigned to Apple Inc. The next two fields define the iBeacon type and have a fixed value (0x02 e 0x15). The UUID field, together with the Major and Minor ones (optional, they can have a value of 0) uniquely identifies each iBeacon.  (insieme con i campi Major e Minor (facoltativi, possono essere impostati a 0) identificano univocamente il singolo iBeacon. Finally, the TX power field contains a measurement, one meter away from the iBeacon, of the received power and is useful for  precisely estimate the distance between the phone and the iBeacon itself.

esp32

I developed a program for the esp32 chip which turns a relay on if it detects a specific iBeacon. Via menuconfig you can configure the UUID of the iBeacon which triggers the led, the pin the led is connected to and the timeout – in seconds – after which the program turns the led off if the iBeacon is not detected anymore. You can moreover set a power threshold to control the distance at which the iBeacon is detected.

To parse the received packet and get the UUID value, in my program I used the method described in this article (parsing using a struct).

The program verifies if the received packet (event ESP_GAP_SEARCH_INQ_RES_EVT) was sent by an iBeacon checking that the packet length is 30 bytes and that its header contains the values listed above:

// iBeacon fixed header
ibeacon_header_t ibeacon_fixed_header = {
  .flags = {0x02, 0x01, 0x06},
  .length = 0x1A,
  .type = 0xFF,
  .company_id = 0x004C,
  .beacon_type = 0x1502
};

It compares the fixed header with the received one using memcmp, function that compares two blocks in memory:

if(memcmp(adv_data, ibeacon_fixed_header, sizeof(ibeacon_fixed_header)))
  result = true;

The source program is available in my Github repository, here’s a video that shows how it works:

Debug SONOFF AC relay with a thermal camera

pSONOFF-FLIR-Banner-600

James Lewis shares his experience in debugging SONOFF AC relay with a thermal camera:

The clever solution seemed to be clever, at least for a few minutes. Suddenly the light turned off. I thought maybe there was a timeout for the manual button. Annoying, but workable. The lamp remained off for about another 2 minutes when I started to smell that unmistakeable burning plastic odor. Touching the case of the SONOFF identified the culprit immediately.
Great. So I have an AC mains switch that isn’t working, but I do not want to go poking my multimeter into it. What do I do?
Turns out, that SONOFF module was defective. I wanted to debug it, but I did not want to measure anything while connected to AC. Here’s how I used a thermal camera to debug my SONOFF.

See the full post on Bald Engineer blog.

ESP32 (31) – BLE, GAP

In my previous tutorials you learned how to use the wifi interface of the esp32 chip. Starting from this post, I’m going to explain you the second wireless technology the esp32 chip supports: bluetooth.

In particular, my tutorial will be about Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE), sometimes called also Bluetooth 4.0 or Bluetooth Smart:

ble-001

Bluetooth Low Energy

BLE is a technology to build personal wireless area networks (WPAN); that is it allows to put in communication different devices (computers, smartphones, smartwatches…) “close” to each other (a theoretical maximum distance of 100m). As the name suggests, version 4.0 of the Bluetooth standard was designed to reduce the power consumption of the devices connected to the network.

Devices are divided into two families:

  • central
  • peripheral

the first ones (central) are devices like PCs, tablets or smartphones with good processing power and memory. The second ones (peripheral) are instead sensors, tags… with less hardware resources and power. A central device can be connected to more peripheral devices at the same time, while it’s not true the opposite:

ble-002

BLE devices periodically report their presence by transmitting advertising packets. The advertising packet can contain up to 31 bytes of data and the transmission frequency can be chosen by the single device: reducing this frequency can indeed reduce energy consumption.

If a BLE device, after having received an avertising package, wants to obtain more information from the device that transmitted it, it can request a second packet of information (always for a maximum of 31 bytes), the scan response packet. The transmission of this second data package is optional:

ble-003

A BLE device can take advantage of advertising packages to send data in broadcast mode. In this case, this device is called a broadcaster, while the devices that receive the data are called observers.

What explained above is defined within a BLE specification called Generic Access Profile (GAP).

esp32

In this first tutorial you’ll learn how to develop a program that will periodically scan the air looking for BLE devices, that is a program which receives advertising packets and displays the data received in the serial console.

Before compiling a program which uses the Bluetooth controller, make sure (using menuconfig) that the controller is enabled (Component config -> Bluetooth):

ble-004

Start your program with the required header files:

#include "esp_bt.h"
#include "esp_bt_main.h"
#include "esp_gap_ble_api.h"

You also need to initialize the NVS partition, used by the Bluetooth driver:

ESP_ERROR_CHECK(nvs_flash_init());

the Bluetooth controller of the esp32 chip supports both the classic and the low energy mode. If one of this two modes is not required in your program, you can release the memory the framework normally allocates to manage it using the esp_bt_controller_mem_release() command. In this example you’re not going to use the classic mode, so:

ESP_ERROR_CHECK(esp_bt_controller_mem_release(ESP_BT_MODE_CLASSIC_BT));

Now you can configure (using the default settings) the controller in BLE mode:

esp_bt_controller_config_t bt_cfg = BT_CONTROLLER_INIT_CONFIG_DEFAULT();
esp_bt_controller_init(&bt_cfg);
esp_bt_controller_enable(ESP_BT_MODE_BLE);

The esp-idf framework esp-idf includes the Bluedroid bluetooth stack. This library was developed by Broadcom and used by Android since version 4.2 Bluedroid is initialized and enabled with the following commands:

esp_bluedroid_init();
esp_bluedroid_enable();

Now you’re ready to start scanning…

GAP, events

In a similar way to what you learned about the wifi driver, the bluetooth driver also runs in a thread separate from our program and communicates with it via events. In order to receive such events, you have to implement a callback function. Whenever the bluetooth driver has to notify an event, it will call that function.

The prototype of the callback function is:

static void esp_gap_cb(esp_gap_ble_cb_event_t event, esp_ble_gap_cb_param_t *param);

You tell the driver which callback function has to use with the esp_ble_gap_register_callback() method:

ESP_ERROR_CHECK(esp_ble_gap_register_callback(esp_gap_cb));

The Bluetooth driver handles several events, there are the ones related to the scan process:

ble-005

Before being able to start the scan process, you have to configure the scan parameters. The configuration is performed using the esp_ble_scan_params_t struct. It’s very important that the variable with the scan parameters is available during all the scan process; it’s therefore necessary to define it globally:

static esp_ble_scan_params_t ble_scan_params = {
  .scan_type              = BLE_SCAN_TYPE_ACTIVE,
  .own_addr_type          = BLE_ADDR_TYPE_PUBLIC,
  .scan_filter_policy     = BLE_SCAN_FILTER_ALLOW_ALL,
  .scan_interval          = 0x50,
  .scan_window            = 0x30
};

With the esp_ble_gap_set_scan_params() method you configure the scan process passing the struct defined above to the driver:

esp_ble_gap_set_scan_params(&ble_scan_params);

When the driver has finished the configuration, it calls the callback function with the event ESP_GAP_BLE_SCAN_PARAM_SET_COMPLETE_EVT. Depending on the event raised, the callback function also receives some parameters. The framework’s Programming Guide explains – for each event – the related parameters. For this event, it’s available the variable scan_param_cmpl that contains only the status parameter.

In the callback function you can use the switch statement to identify each event:

switch (event) {
  case ESP_GAP_BLE_SCAN_PARAM_SET_COMPLETE_EVT:
  [...]
  break;

and check if the configuration was successful with:

if(param->scan_param_cmpl.status == ESP_BT_STATUS_SUCCESS)

If so, you can start the scan process:

esp_ble_gap_start_scanning(10);

The parameter is the scan duration (in seconds).

Once the scan process has started, the driver raises the ESP_GAP_BLE_SCAN_START_COMPLETE_EVT event. For this event too it’s possible to verify the correct execution by reading the status parameter (pay attention: the name of the variable which contains the parameter changes!):

case ESP_GAP_BLE_SCAN_START_COMPLETE_EVT:
  if(param->scan_start_cmpl.status == ESP_BT_STATUS_SUCCESS)
    printf("Scan started\n\n");
  else 
    printf("Unable to start scan process");
  break;

GAP, scan process

During the scan process, for each advertising packet the chip receives the event ESP_GAP_BLE_SCAN_RESULT_EVT is raised.

This event contains some subevents. You can identify which subevent was raised reading the scan_rst.search_evt parameters. Two subevents are in particular interesting:

ble-006

the first tells you that a device was detected, while the second one that the scan process completed.

For each detected device, various information is available. For now let’s print its address in the console:

case ESP_GAP_BLE_SCAN_RESULT_EVT:
  if(param->scan_rst.search_evt == ESP_GAP_SEARCH_INQ_RES_EVT) {
    printf("Device found: ADDR=");
    for(int i = 0; i < ESP_BD_ADDR_LEN; i++) {
      printf("%02X", param->scan_rst.bda[i]);
      if(i != ESP_BD_ADDR_LEN -1) printf(":");
    }

The address is an uint8_t array, whose size is defined by the ESP_BD_ADDR_LEN constant. The address is normally displayed in hex form, with the bytes separated by :

ble-007

Device list management

As explained above, the ESP_GAP_BLE_SCAN_RESULT_EVT event is raised everytime a device sends an advertising packet. This means that a single device will be detected multiple times during the scan process.

It’s therefore necessary to maintain a list of the known devices. In my Github repository you can find a test program that scans the network and prints all the detected devices.

You can verify if it works correctly comparing what the program detects with the BLE devices listed by a smartphone… for Android for example you can use the very good nRF Connect application by Nordic.

Here’s what my program detected:

ble-008

and here’s the nRF Connect’s screenshot:

ble-009

 

ESP32 (30) – HTTP server in SoftAP mode

One of the most frequent questions I receive from my website’s contact form or from my Facebook page is whether it’s possible to publish an HTTP server when the esp32 chip is working in SoftAP mode, that is when it publishes its own wifi network.

In previous tutorials (18 – Access Point and 20 – Webserver) I’ve already blogged about the two subjects separately, today I’ll explain how to combine them.

Access Point

Let’s start defining the parameters of the TCP/IP network will be published by the esp32 chip. You have to choose an addressing plan, that is which IP addresses will belong to the network. You can use some of the IP addresses IANA assigned to private networks (RFC1918):

  • 10.0.0.0/8
  • 172.16.0.0/12
  • 192.168.0.0/16

The numbers /8/12/16 are, in short form, the network mask. For example/8 means that the network 10.0.0.0/8 contains all the addresses from 10.0.0.1 to 10.255.255.254, a total of 16.777.216 different addresses. Thanks to the subnetting you can slice a network in smaller subnetworks.

In this example I’m going to use the network 192.168.1.0 with netmask 255.255.255.0 (/24), that is a network with 254 usable addresses (192.168.1.1 – 192.168.1.254). You have to statically assign to the esp32 chip an address that belongs to that network; to make things easy I chose the first one (192.168.1.1):

tcpip_adapter_ip_info_t info;
memset(&info, 0, sizeof(info));
IP4_ADDR(&info.ip, 192, 168, 1, 1);
IP4_ADDR(&info.gw, 192, 168, 1, 1);
IP4_ADDR(&info.netmask, 255, 255, 255, 0);
ESP_ERROR_CHECK(tcpip_adapter_set_ip_info(TCPIP_ADAPTER_IF_AP, &info));

The other devices which will connect to the network will dynamically configure their IP address, thanks to the DHCP service. To use the DHCP server in your program, first you have to stop it before configuring the network settings and then start it:

ESP_ERROR_CHECK(tcpip_adapter_dhcps_stop(TCPIP_ADAPTER_IF_AP));
[...]
ESP_ERROR_CHECK(tcpip_adapter_dhcps_start(TCPIP_ADAPTER_IF_AP));

After having configured the TCP/IP network and the related services, you can set up the wifi interface of the esp32 chip and activate the SoftAP mode:

wifi_init_config_t wifi_init_config = WIFI_INIT_CONFIG_DEFAULT();
ESP_ERROR_CHECK(esp_wifi_init(&wifi_init_config));
ESP_ERROR_CHECK(esp_wifi_set_storage(WIFI_STORAGE_RAM));
ESP_ERROR_CHECK(esp_wifi_set_mode(WIFI_MODE_AP));

You have to prepare a wifi_config_t struct that contains all the parameters for the wifi network (SSID, authentication…) and pass it to the method:

ESP_ERROR_CHECK(esp_wifi_set_config(WIFI_IF_AP, &ap_config));

You can hardcode the parameters in the program, or make them configurable via menuconfig (as in this example) or Possiamo decidere di inserire i parametri hardcoded nel programma, di renderli configurabili tramite menuconfig (come nell’esempio) or even read them from a config file or from NVS variables.

Finally start the wifi interface with:

ESP_ERROR_CHECK(esp_wifi_start());

HTTP server

Now you can use the Netconn API of the lwip library to bind your program to the TCP/80 port (it’s the standard port used by the HTTP protocol) and to listen for incoming connections:

struct netconn *conn;
conn = netconn_new(NETCONN_TCP);
netconn_bind(conn, NULL, 80);
netconn_listen(conn);

The accept() method blocks the program until a new connection is accepted:

struct netconn *newconn;
netconn_accept(conn, &amp;newconn);

After having established the connection, your program must speak the same language (protocol) of the client; in this case the HTTP protocol used by web browsers.

To keep the example simple, it will publish a static website, whose content is stored in an SPIFFS partition (see the ESP32lights project for more information). Therefore, the program will answer requests in the form GET <resource> looking for the resource in the SPIFFS partition and, if found, sending its content using the netconn_write() method:

http-ap-001

Bonus, mDNS

To be able to connect to the HTTP server published by the esp32 chip, a client must know the IP address (192.168.1.1) assigned to the chip.

We can leverage the mDNS service (as explained here) to allow the client to connect using an alias (for example esp32web):

mdns_server_t* mDNS = NULL;
ESP_ERROR_CHECK(mdns_init(TCPIP_ADAPTER_IF_AP, &mDNS));
ESP_ERROR_CHECK(mdns_set_hostname(mDNS, "esp32web"));
ESP_ERROR_CHECK(mdns_set_instance(mDNS, "esp32 webserver"));

If the device you’re using supports the mDNS service, it will be possible to connect to the website using the address esp32web.local:

http-ap-002

Demo

The complete program is available in my Github repository. After having loaded it on your devboard, a new wifi network will be available:

http-ap-003

if you connect to that network, your device will be assigned an IP addess on the 192.168.1.0/24 network:

http-ap-004

and you’ll be able to point the browser to http://esp32web.local (or http://192.168.1.1) and display the website:

http-ap-005

ESP8266 Wi-Fi button – DIY Amazon dash button clone

p-wi-fi-button-thumbnail-jpg-600

Rui Santos over at Random Nerd Tutorials posted a step by step guide on building an ESP8266 Wi-Fi button:

In this project you’re going to build an ESP8266 Wi-Fi Button that can trigger any home automation event. This is like a remote control that you can take in your pocket or place anywhere that when pressed sends out an email. It can also be called a DIY Amazon Dash Button clone.

Check out the video after the break.

 

ESP32 (29) – Deep sleep

One of the major concerns for embedded devices is the power consumption. If the device you’re designing will be battery powered, it’s indeed important to reduce as much as possible its power consumption  to maximize the autonomy (= the working time before it’s necessary to replace or recharge the battery).

The esp32 chip offers 5 different power modes. The “normal” mode is named active mode; in this mode all the features of the chip are available. By starting to reduce the CPU speed and disabling some peripherals and cores, the chip switches to different power saving modes, as summarized in the following diagram:

sleep-001

In this first post about the esp32 power saving modes, I’ll explain the deep sleep mode.

Deep sleep

The esp-idf framework actually supports two power saving modes: light sleep and deep sleep. Between the two, the deep sleep mode is the one which offers greater energy savings. In this mode, are turned off:

  • both the CPUs
  • most of the RAM memory
  • all the peripherals

by default are instead kept active:

  • the RTC controller
  • the RTC peripherals, including the ULP coprocessor
  • the RTC memories (slowfast)

You can put the chip in deep sleep with the esp_deep_sleep_start() method, while it’s possible to wake up it via different events:

sleep-002

When the chip wakes up from deep sleep, a new boot sequence is performed. It’s therefore very important to understand that the execution of your program does not restart at the point where the esp_deep_sleep_start() method is called.

Let’s see how to configure and use two wake up events; in a future post I’ll write about touch pad and ULP.

Timer

The simplest wake up event is for sure the one which leverages a timer of the RTC controller. Thanks to the method:

esp_err_t esp_sleep_enable_timer_wakeup(uint64_t time_in_us)

you can wake up the esp32 chip after the specified number of milliseconds. The method must be called before entering the deep sleep mode:

// wakeup after 10 seconds
esp_sleep_enable_timer_wakeup(10000000);
esp_deep_sleep_start();

I/O triggers

In a previous post I’ve already blogged about the possibility to receive interrupts when a digital pin of the chip changes its status. We can leverage a similar functionality to wake up the chip from sleep.

With the method

esp_err_t esp_sleep_enable_ext0_wakeup(gpio_num_t gpio_num, int level)

you can enable the wake up if the specified pin (gpio_num) changes its status (level).

You can only use the pins with RTC function (0, 2, 4, 12-15, 25-27, 32-39) and the possible levels are 0 (= low) or 1 (high). If, for example, you want to wake up the chip from deep sleep if pin 4 has a low level, you’ll write:

esp_sleep_enable_ext0_wakeup(4, 0);

The framework also offers a method to monitor different pins:

esp_err_t esp_sleep_enable_ext1_wakeup(uint64_t mask, esp_sleep_ext1_wakeup_mode_t mode)

the pins (this method also accepts only the ones specified above) must be specified in a bitmask and  the wakeup modes are:

  • ESP_EXT1_WAKEUP_ALL_LOW = wakeup  when all the pins are low
  • ESP_EXT1_WAKEUP_ANY_HIGH = wakeup when at least one pin is high
When the chip wakes up from the sleep, the pins specified will be configured as RTC IO. To be able to use them again as normal digital pins, you have first to call the rtc_gpio_deinit(gpio_num) method. The ext0_wakeup method at the moment cannot be used together with touch pad or ULP events.

After the wake up…

If you configured more than one wake up event, you can know which specific event woke up the chip with:

esp_sleep_wakeup_cause_t esp_sleep_get_wakeup_cause()

The possible constants are:

sleep-003

For the ext1_wakeup event, a specific method is available to get the bitmask of the pins:

uint64_t esp_sleep_get_ext1_wakeup_status()

Memory

As explained above, in deep sleep mode the content of the RTC fast and RTC slow memories is preserved. You can therefore use those memory segments to store data that must be retained during the sleep.

To ask the compiler to store a variable in the RTC slow memory, you can use the RTC_DATA_ATTR attribute, or the RTC_RODATA_ATTR one if the variable is read only:

RTC_DATA_ATTR static time_t last;

Demo

I wrote a program (its source code is in my Github repository) to demonstrate the deep sleep mode and two different wake up events:

Arduino Tutorial: Adding sensors to your data logger

Float configuration deploymnet on new housings

Edward Mallon writes:

This post isn’t another How-To tutorial for a specific sensor because the Arduino community has already produced a considerable number of resources like that.  You’d be hard pressed to find any sensor in the DIY market that doesn’t give you a dozen cookbook recipes to follow after a simple Google search. In fact, you get so many results from “How to use SensorX with Arduino” that beginners are overwhelmed because few of those tutorials help people decide which type of sensor suits their skill level. This post attempts to put the range of different options you can use with a Cave Pearl data logger into a conceptual framework, with links to examples that illustrate the ideas in text.

More details at thecavepearlproject.org.

Yet another ARM development tutorial

armdevelopment-1056x675

ARM development tutorial at smdprutser.nl:

It has been a while since I wrote about ARM development. I recently made a Black Magic Probe (BMP) clone which acts different then the original. The BMP can source power to the target, but on my version control signal is inverted. Not a big deal, but can give unintentional results and has to be fixed. Just for my own memory I wrote down all the steps involved in setting it up and shared it in order to be useful for others.

See the full post on smdprutser blog.