App note: Press-Fit technology


PCB Power connection solution from Würth Elektronik, Link here

As a solder free fastening technology, press-fit technology frequently offers an attractive alternative to simple soldering technology. An effective electrical press-fit connection is created by pressing a pin into the plated through hole of a circuit board and – as part of cold welding process – generating a gas-tight electrical connection.

The trough-hole plating for a press-fit system is essentially made in the same way as are the holes for accepting components for THT soldering. Thus there are no changes required in the pcb manufacturing process. One outstanding characteristic of the press-fit system compared to the soldering system is that it produces not only an electrical connection but also an extraordinarily strong mechanical connection between the inserted components and the PCB.

App note: Going wireless with magnetic shielding

Efficient magnetic shielding application note from Würth Elektronik, Link here (PDF)

Magnetic Field Interferences are increasing in electronic devices due to a number of factors including reduced separation distances of PCB’s, Integrated Circuits and many other sensitive components. In addition to this the extended use of magnetically coupled communication technologies (Qi-WPC, NFC, RFID, PMA, A4WP, WCT…) leads to more complex layout and proximity considerations.

With Ferrite materials it is possible to manage and predict magnetic flux flow and thereby improve efficiency of power transfers, increase distances of near field communications and of course avoid additional unwanted coupling effects which could lead to losses or noise.

App note: Anti-tampering solution for E-Meter application


App note from Infineon Technologies on 3D sensor used as anti-tampering devices on E-Meters, Link here (PDF)

This application note describes a possible realization of an anti-tampering solution in an Electricity Meter. With the new product family of the 3D Magnetic Sensor (TLV493D), Infineon offers an innovative solution for three-dimensional magnetic position sensing. By allowing a measurement of all three components of a magnetic field at the same time, it enables a multitude of applications with different ranges. Furthermore the integrated temperature sensor enables the application to compensate possible temperature-dependent magnetic field changes.

App note: Using a magnetic 3D sensor in a gear stick application


6 hall effect sensors effectively replaced by one 3D sensor, an application from Infineon Technologies. Link here (PDF)

A magnetic 3D sensor is well suitable for a detection of the position of the gear stick. The „State-of-the-art“ solution with up to 6 single hall switches can be replaced by one 3D sensor. The TLE493D-W1B6 has the same package dimensions as a hall switch and leads to cost and space savings.


App note: MOSFET power losses and how they affect power-supply efficiency


Here’s an application note (PDF!) from Texas Instruments on MOSFET power losses and how they affect power-supply efficiency:

Power-supply efficiency is a critical criterion for today’s cloud-infrastructure hardware. The efficiency of the chosen power solutions relates to system power loss and the thermal performance of integrated circuits (ICs), printed circuit boards (PCBs), and other components,which determines the power-usage effectiveness of a data center.
This article revisits some of the basic principles of power supplies and then addresses how MOSFETs—the power stage of any switching-voltage regulator—affect efficiency.

App note: CCD Fundamentals


ON Semiconductor’s Charge-Coupled Devices primer application note. Link here (PDF)

Like many technologies, the Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) started out as one kind of creature and wound up as something completely different. Invented in the late 1960’s by researchers at Bell Labs, it was initially conceived as a new type of computer memory circuit, and it was demonstrated in 1970 for that facility. It soon became apparent that the CCD had many other potential applications, including signal processing and imaging, the latter because of silicon’s light sensitivity that responds to wavelengths less than 1.1 m (the visible spectrum falls between 0.4 m and 0.7 m). The CCD’s early promise as a memory element has since disappeared, but its superb ability to detect light has turned the CCD into the premier image sensor technology.

App note: Understanding data eye diagram methodology for analyzing high speed digital signals


Application note from ON Semiconductors about the Data eye diagram methodology to represent and analyze a high speed digital signal. Link here (PDF)

The eye diagram allows key parameters of the electrical quality of the signal to be quickly visualized and determined. The data eye diagram is constructed from a digital waveform by folding the parts of the waveform corresponding to each individual bit into a single graph with signal amplitude on the vertical axis and time on horizontal axis. By repeating this construction over many samples of the waveform, the resultant graph will represent the average statistics of the signal and will resemble an eye. The eye opening corresponds to one bit period and is typically called the Unit Interval (UI) width of the eye diagram. An ideal digital waveform with sharp rise and fall times and constant amplitude will have an eye diagram.

App note: STM32 cross-series timer overview


STM32 timer overview application note (PDF!) from ST:

The STM32 devices are built-in with various types of timers, with the following features for

  • General-purpose timers are used in any application for output compare (timing and delay generation), one-pulse mode, input capture (for external signal frequency measurement), sensor interface (encoder, hall sensor)…
  • Advanced timers: these timers have the most features. In addition to general purpose
    functions, they include several features related to motor control and digital power
    conversion applications: three complementary signals with deadtime insertion,
    emergency shut-down input.
  • One or two channel timers: used as general-purpose timers with a limited number of
  • One or two channel timers with complementary output: same as previous type, but
    having a deadtime generator on one channel. This allows having complementary
    signals with a time base independent from the advanced timers.
  • Basic timers have no input/outputs and are used either as timebase timers or for
    triggering the DAC peripheral.
  • Low-power timers are simpler than general purpose timers and their advantage is the ability to continue working in low-power modes and generate a wake-up event.
  • High-resolution timers are specialized timer peripherals designed to drive power conversion in lighting and power source applications. It is however also usable in other fields that require very fine timing resolution. AN4885 and AN4449 are practical examples of high-resolution timer use.

App note: HVArc Guard® surface-mount capacitors for low-power voltage multiplier applications


Application note on Vishay’s arc resistant SMD capacitors, Link here (PDF)

Voltage multipliers can generate very high voltages due to an inverter circuit that feeds a step-up transformer, which is connected to the multiplier circuit. An example of a typical voltage multiplier, which is simply a circuit comprised of capacitors and diodes that charge and discharge in alternating half cycles of the applied AC voltage. Applications for voltage multipliers include flyback converters, where a high voltage is produced from a low battery or supply voltage in medical X-ray systems, air ionizers, and oscilloscopes, and instrumentation requiring a high-voltage power supply.

When a high voltage potential is applied at > 1000 V, an arc-over between the terminals, or from terminal to case will occur. To eliminate any arc-over, an overcoating can be applied to the board, or additional board layout spacing can be added to isolate the high-voltage section from other sections of the board. Although coatings add cost to the process and the design, they are required in some applications to meet electrical safety standards.

App note: AC film capacitors in connection with the mains


An application note from Vishay about choosing the right filter capacitors that are placed directly on mains. Link here (PDF)

To help reducing emission and increasing the immunity of radio interference, electromagnetic interference suppression film capacitors (EMI capacitors) are playing a major role in all kind of applications. These capacitors are put directly parallel over the mains at the input of the appliances.

Because of the high energy availability and the severe environment of surge voltages and pulses, applications of capacitors in connection with the mains must be chosen carefully. Two kinds of connections and thus two kinds of applications can be distinguished. One is where the capacitor is directly connected in parallel with the mains without any other impedance or circuit protection, and another where the capacitor is connected to the mains in series with another circuitry.