App note: PCB design guidelines that maximize the performance of TVS diodes


Correct TVS diodes location on the PCB provides optimal protection from surge, an application note from ON Semiconductors. Link here (PDF)

Transient Voltage Suppressors (TVS) avalanche diodes and diode arrays can be used to protect sensitive electronic components from the surge pulses that arise from ESD and EMI. The small size, fast response time, low clamping voltage and low cost of TVS diodes provides for an effective solution to prevent surge problems. Avalanche TVS diodes and diode arrays are relatively simple devices to use to suppress surge voltages. Only a few PCB design rules must be followed to optimize the ESD and EMI immunity level of the protection circuits.

App note: Single-cell battery discharge characteristics using the TPS61070 boost converter


TI’s application note (PDF!): Single-cell battery discharge characteristics using the TPS61070 boost converter

This application report presents practical single-cell battery discharge characteristics in real-world application, and primarily focuses on the varying internal impedance of a battery and how that affects the battery terminal voltage.


App note: Using the TPS5430 as an inverting buck-boost converter


A Texas Instruments application note (PDF!) on using the TPS5430 as an inverting buck–boost converter:

The wide input voltage range SWIFT™ (Switcher With Integrated FET) dc/dc converters are typically used as step-down converters where the derived output is a positive voltage less than the input voltage source. In some cases, it may be required to generate a negative voltage from the input voltage source. In such instances, it is possible to configure the TPS5430/20/10 devices in an inverting buck–boost topology, where the output voltage is negative with respect to ground.

App note: Press-Fit technology


PCB Power connection solution from Würth Elektronik, Link here

As a solder free fastening technology, press-fit technology frequently offers an attractive alternative to simple soldering technology. An effective electrical press-fit connection is created by pressing a pin into the plated through hole of a circuit board and – as part of cold welding process – generating a gas-tight electrical connection.

The trough-hole plating for a press-fit system is essentially made in the same way as are the holes for accepting components for THT soldering. Thus there are no changes required in the pcb manufacturing process. One outstanding characteristic of the press-fit system compared to the soldering system is that it produces not only an electrical connection but also an extraordinarily strong mechanical connection between the inserted components and the PCB.

App note: Going wireless with magnetic shielding

Efficient magnetic shielding application note from Würth Elektronik, Link here (PDF)

Magnetic Field Interferences are increasing in electronic devices due to a number of factors including reduced separation distances of PCB’s, Integrated Circuits and many other sensitive components. In addition to this the extended use of magnetically coupled communication technologies (Qi-WPC, NFC, RFID, PMA, A4WP, WCT…) leads to more complex layout and proximity considerations.

With Ferrite materials it is possible to manage and predict magnetic flux flow and thereby improve efficiency of power transfers, increase distances of near field communications and of course avoid additional unwanted coupling effects which could lead to losses or noise.

App note: Anti-tampering solution for E-Meter application


App note from Infineon Technologies on 3D sensor used as anti-tampering devices on E-Meters, Link here (PDF)

This application note describes a possible realization of an anti-tampering solution in an Electricity Meter. With the new product family of the 3D Magnetic Sensor (TLV493D), Infineon offers an innovative solution for three-dimensional magnetic position sensing. By allowing a measurement of all three components of a magnetic field at the same time, it enables a multitude of applications with different ranges. Furthermore the integrated temperature sensor enables the application to compensate possible temperature-dependent magnetic field changes.

App note: Using a magnetic 3D sensor in a gear stick application


6 hall effect sensors effectively replaced by one 3D sensor, an application from Infineon Technologies. Link here (PDF)

A magnetic 3D sensor is well suitable for a detection of the position of the gear stick. The „State-of-the-art“ solution with up to 6 single hall switches can be replaced by one 3D sensor. The TLE493D-W1B6 has the same package dimensions as a hall switch and leads to cost and space savings.


App note: MOSFET power losses and how they affect power-supply efficiency


Here’s an application note (PDF!) from Texas Instruments on MOSFET power losses and how they affect power-supply efficiency:

Power-supply efficiency is a critical criterion for today’s cloud-infrastructure hardware. The efficiency of the chosen power solutions relates to system power loss and the thermal performance of integrated circuits (ICs), printed circuit boards (PCBs), and other components,which determines the power-usage effectiveness of a data center.
This article revisits some of the basic principles of power supplies and then addresses how MOSFETs—the power stage of any switching-voltage regulator—affect efficiency.

App note: CCD Fundamentals


ON Semiconductor’s Charge-Coupled Devices primer application note. Link here (PDF)

Like many technologies, the Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) started out as one kind of creature and wound up as something completely different. Invented in the late 1960’s by researchers at Bell Labs, it was initially conceived as a new type of computer memory circuit, and it was demonstrated in 1970 for that facility. It soon became apparent that the CCD had many other potential applications, including signal processing and imaging, the latter because of silicon’s light sensitivity that responds to wavelengths less than 1.1 m (the visible spectrum falls between 0.4 m and 0.7 m). The CCD’s early promise as a memory element has since disappeared, but its superb ability to detect light has turned the CCD into the premier image sensor technology.

App note: Understanding data eye diagram methodology for analyzing high speed digital signals


Application note from ON Semiconductors about the Data eye diagram methodology to represent and analyze a high speed digital signal. Link here (PDF)

The eye diagram allows key parameters of the electrical quality of the signal to be quickly visualized and determined. The data eye diagram is constructed from a digital waveform by folding the parts of the waveform corresponding to each individual bit into a single graph with signal amplitude on the vertical axis and time on horizontal axis. By repeating this construction over many samples of the waveform, the resultant graph will represent the average statistics of the signal and will resemble an eye. The eye opening corresponds to one bit period and is typically called the Unit Interval (UI) width of the eye diagram. An ideal digital waveform with sharp rise and fall times and constant amplitude will have an eye diagram.