App note: Avoidance of ceramic-substrate-based LED chip cracking induced by PCB bending or flexing


Application note from CREE on the causes of ceramic-substrate-based failures due to PCB board stresses and how to minimize their occurrence. Link here (PDF)

Printed circuit board (PCB) bending and/or flexing is an unavoidable phenomenon that is known to exist and is easily encountered during electronic board assembly processes. PCB bending and/or flexing is the fundamental source of tensile stress induced on the electronic components on the board assembly. For more brittle components, like ceramic-based electronic components, micro-cracks can be induced, which can eventually lead to a fatal failure of the components. For this reason, many standards organizations throughout the world specify the methods under which electronic board assemblies must be tested to ensure their robustness, sometimes as a precondition to more rigorous environmental tests such as thermal cycling or thermal shock.

App note: Power management solution – Constant Voltage (CV) pulse charging of hybrid capacitors


App note from Vishay about constant voltage (CV) pulse charging as the most cost-efficient solution to use on Hyrid capacitors. Link here (PDF)

Rechargeable energy storage solutions are of high interest because of their flexibility, low maintenance requirements, and reduced cost over their life-cycle.

For compact applications, classic electrolytic capacitors are environmentally friendly alternatives and available for a wide range of rated voltages. However, they soon reach their energy storage limit with output requirements exceeding a few 100 mWs.

Electric double-layer capacitors (EDLC) offer high power and energy density, as well as long working life, but are limited to low working voltages in the same range as batteries. Electronic systems require a compromise between these technologies, namely solutions that combine the advantages of classic batteries and double-layer capacitors without the limitations.


App note: How to implement an SCR or a Triac in hybrid relay applications


Another app note from STMicroelectronics on SCR or Triac hybrid with mechanical relay to decrease power loss and manage inrush current. Link here (PDF)

This document gives some key information about the design of the solid-state silicon AC switch stage of a hybrid relay, which can drive resistive, capacitive or inductive AC loads, such as: heater resistors, motors for industry, power tools or appliance applications.

App note: AC switches – Is a positive power supply mandatory for my application, or could a negative output work also?


App note from STMicroelectronics about the usage of a negative supply in controlling AC switches and their benefits, Link here (PDF)

In this application note we explain the reasons why some appliance designers might choose a positive power supply. This selection is based mainly on the choice of switched mode power supply (SMPS). Some specific applications cases, may also lead to the choice of a positive power supply.

Using a power supply with a positive output is not convenient for all applications. For example, a negative supply is preferred to drive AC switches. We provide here an alternative solution which allows a negative output to be implemented whenever possible. Further, many solutions allow both a negative and a positive output (for the microcontroller) to be implemented.

App note: Electrical techniques for using different power sources on vibration motors


Application bulletin from Precisionmircodrives on powering vibration motors from different and some cases fluctuating power sources. Link here (PDF)

As vibration motors have a wide variety of applications, they are often integrated into systems which have different power sources. A common concern, in terms of power supply, is adjusting the source power supply voltage to a suitable level for the vibration motor or drive circuitry. This protects the motor, and can ensure a constant level of performance for uses like haptic feedback.

App note: Map colors of a CIE plot and color temperature using an RGB color sensor


An app note from MAXIM integrated on RGB color sensor and their capability to correct color deviation by providing feedback based on a reference color. Link here (PDF)

This application note will show how all the colors within the color gamut formed by red, green, and blue constants in a CIE plot can be measured and mapped with an RGB color sensor. This RGB sensor can also monitor the color output of LEDs in a display and/or provide feedback to maintain a reference color. An RGB sensor will also be mapped to measure the color temperature of practical light sources.

App note: High-speed lithium-ion battery charger


C8051F300 implementation of Li-Ion battery charger from Silicon Labs. Link here (PDF)

Driven by the need for untethered mobility and ease of use, many systems rely on rechargeable batteries as their primary power source. The battery charger is typically implemented using a fixedfunction IC to control the charging current/voltage profile.

The C8051F300 family provides a flexible alternative to fixed-function linear battery chargers. This note discusses how to use the C8051F300 device in Li-Ion battery charger applications. The Li-Ion charging algorithms can be easily adapted to other battery chemistries.

App note: Preventing LED failures caused by corrosive material


Chemical compatibility of LEDs application note from OSRAM. Link here (PDF)

The performance and stability of light emitting diodes (LEDs) may be influenced by various chemical incompatibilities arising from chemicals and materials used, amongst other things, in luminaire construction, or by gases in the proximate environment of LEDs during field operation. Nevertheless, LEDs have to fulfill a wide range of customer needs and requirements in indoor and outdoor applications.

This application note provides information about the chemical compatibility of certain substances with LEDs, particularly with regard to some of their basic components. In this context, the main mechanisms of chemical incompatibility are illustrated using examples of blue and white LEDs.