App note: Introduction to the silicon photomultiplier (SiPM)

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App note from ON Semiconductors about SiPM sensors, explaining the working principle and primary performance parameters. Link here (PDF)

The Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) is a sensor that addresses the challenge of sensing, timing and quantifying low-light signals down to the single-photon level. Traditionally the province of the Photomultiplier Tube (PMT), the Silicon Photomultiplier now offers a highly attractive alternative that combines the low-light detection capabilities of the PMT while offering all the benefits of a solid-state sensor. The SiPM features low-voltage operation, insensitivity to magnetic fields, mechanical robustness and excellent uniformity of response. Due to these traits, the SensL® SiPM has rapidly gained a proven performance in the fields of medical imaging, hazard and threat detection, biophotonics, high energy physics and LiDAR.

App note: USB audio bridge example with STM32F0 MCUs

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App note from STMicroelectronics using their STM32F0 microcontrollers to playback audio stream from USB. Link here (PDF)

This application note describes a method and an example of synchronizing audio playback or audio recording with an upstream or downstream USB audio host, ensuring flawless audio listening or recording using only internal MCU resources.

Focusing on specific properties of USB microcontrollers from the STM32F0 family, the application note describes how the CRS unit can be beneficially employed for USB audio streaming synchronization. In particular, it elaborates a method of HSI48 clock frequency trimming to compensate for timing differences due to independent USB host (computer) and device (STM32F0) clock domains.

App note: USB Type-C protection and filtering

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STMicroelectronics’ solution for simplifying USB Type-C protection and filtering using transient voltage suppressors, common mode filtering and proper board layout. Link here (PDF)

The USB interface has been present on the market for nearly 2 decades and thanks to that, nowadays it is quite obvious for everybody to connect electronic devices in this manner. However, the presence of different types of connectors: type A, type B, mini USB, micro USB etc., makes difficult and complicated the choice of the right one. For this reason USB Type-C, a unique connector to drive audio and power data up to 5 or 10 Gbps, is now available.

Due to the fact that for its own nature a connector is a link to the outside world, it may be exposed to a lot of disturbances which can ruin the transceivers. Moreover, the high-speed links radiate therefore an efficient filter has to be used to solve antenna desense.

STMicroelectronics has developed some specific protection devices and common mode filters with optimized performance and layout.

App note: How to maintain USB signal integrity when adding ESD protection

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Introducing the eye diagram method in this app note from ON Semiconductors in determining signal integrity of USB lines. Link here (PDF)

The Universal Serial Bus (USB) has become a popular feature of PCs, cell phones and other electronic devices. USB makes data transfer between electronic devices faster and easier. USB 2.0 transfers data at up to 480 Mbps. At these data rates, any small amount of capacitance added will cause disturbances to the data signals. Designers are left with the challenge of finding ESD protection solutions that can protect these sensitive lines without adding signal degrading capacitance. This document will discuss USB 2.0 and evaluate the importance of low capacitance ESD protection devices with the use of eye diagrams.

App note: Low-side self-protected MOSFET

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Integrated fault protected MOSFET app note from ON Semiconductors. Link here (PDF)

The ever increasing density and complexity of automotive and industrial control electronics requires integration of components, wherever possible, so as to conserve space, reduce cost, and improve reliability. Integration of protection features with power switches continues to drive new product development. The often open environments of automotive and industrial electronics, subject to severe voltage transients, high power and high inductance loads, numerous external connections, and human intervention force the requirement of fault protection circuitry. Advancements in power MOSFET processing technology afford an economical marriage of protection features, such as current limitation, and standard MOSFET power transistor switches. This paper describes the technology and operation of ON Semiconductor’s HDPlus monolithic low-side smart MOSFET family.

App note: Capacitive sensing: Direct vs remote liquid-level sensing performance analysis

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Capacitive liquid level sensing method comparison discussed in this app note from Texas Instruments. Link here (PDF)

Capacitive-based liquid level sensing is making its way into the consumer, industrial, and automotive markets due to its system sensitivity, flexibility, and low cost. With using TI’s capacitive sensing technology, the system flexibility allows designers to have the choice of placing the sensors directly on the container (direct sensing) or in close proximity to the container (remote sensing). Each configuration has its own advantages and disadvantages. This application note highlights the system differences and performance of direct and remote sensing to provide guidance in how capacitive-based liquid-level sensing is affected.

App note: Measuring liquid levels using hall effect sensors

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App note from Infineon on methods used in liquid level measurement and how contactless hall effect sensors are the right choice for the job. Link here (PDF)

This application note is dedicated to liquid level sensing using non-contacting magnetic sensor technology. First, an overview of some liquid level sensor application requirements are given. Next, we will introduce some of the solutions that are employed today and are researched for future systems, including both contacting techniques as well as non-contacting methods. Magnetic sensing turns out to be a comparably easy and robust solution to tackle the problem and Infineon’s linear Hall sensor portfolio is presented. Different design aspects of a magnetic liquid level sensor, including magnetic circuit designs, are discussed. The last section introduces some of Infineon’s Hall effect sensors that are suitable for use in fuel level sensing.

App note: Aluminum electrolytic capacitors design for long operational life

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App note from KEMET on long life electrolytic capacitors. Link here (PDF)

The service life for high quality power supplies and automotive power electronics is often limited by electrolytic capacitors’ operational life (Lop). Very long life (> 20 years at temperature up to 75C) is possible to be achieved by choosing capacitors with optimized design. Type of electrolyte, capacitors lid design, sealing method and rubber material quality, are important factors which determine the Lop.

App note: Comparison of ceramic and tantalum capacitors

 

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App note from KEMET about the replaceability between ceramic and tantalum capacitors to each other. Link here (PDF)

Ceramic capacitors have a multitude of dielectric types available and each of these types is characterized by their sensitivities to temparature, but not to voltage or time. This paper compares the X7R, X6S, or X5R dielectric types of ceramic capacitors with tantalum capacitors. Ceramic capacitors constructed witht these dielectrics offer moderate dielectric constants with moderate temperature and voltage sensitivities. They overlap with tantalum capacitors in capacitance/voltage range offerings. In many cases, the solder pad geometry allows swapping of ceramic 0603. 0805, 1206 or 1210 chip sizes with “J”, “R”, “A”, or “B” case tantalums, respectively.