Lifetime estimation methods for elcap app note from Jianghai. Link here (PDF)
Aluminum Electrolytic Capacitors (“alu-elcaps”, “elcaps”) are essential for the function of many electronic devices. Ever increasing for enhanced efficiency, the expanding utilization of renewable energy and the continuous growth of electronic content in automotive applications have driven the usage of these components.
In many applications, the lifetime of electronic devices is directly linked to the lifetime of the elcaps inside. To ensure reliable operation of electronic devices for a defined period, a thorough knowledge of the vital properties of elcaps is mandatory.
The present article outlines the construction of elcaps and explains related terms like ESR, ripple current, self-heating, chemical stability, and lifetime. Two estimation tools for obtaining elcap lifetime approximations in an application are introduced and illustrated by an example.
Another application note from Analog Devices this time about the superiority of digital over mechanical potentionmenters. Link here (PDF)
Potentiometers have been widely used since the early days of electronic circuits, providing a simple way to calibrate a system, adjusting offset voltage or gain in an amplifier, tuning filters, controlling screen brightness, among other uses. Due to their physical construction, mechanical potentiometers have some limitations inherent to their nature, such as size, mechanical wear, wiper contamination, resistance drift, sensitivity to vibration, humidity, and layout inflexibility.
Digital potentiometers are designed to overcome all these problems, offering increased reliability and higher accuracy with smaller voltages glitches. The mechanical potentiometer has now been relegated to environments where the digital potentiometer cannot be a suitable replacement, such as high temperature environments or in high power applications.
Comparing both technologies is the simplest way to discern which is the optimal solution for your system.
App note from Analog Devices on robust precision signal conditioning. Link here (PDF)
Industrial measurement and control systems often need to interface to sensors while operating in noisy environments. Because sensors typically generate very small electrical signals, extracting their output from the noise can be challenging. Applying signal conditioning techniques, such as amplification and filtering, can aid in the extraction of the signal because these techniques increase the sensitivity of the system. The signal can then be scaled and shifted to take full advantage of high performance ADCs.
Old app note from Maxim Integrated about high-precision temperature measurement. Link here (PDF)
Many industrial and medical applications require temperature measurements with accuracies of ±1°C or better, performed with reasonable cost over a wide range of temperatures (-270°C to +1750°C), and often with low power consumption. Properly selected, standardized, modern thermocouples paired with high-resolution ADC data acquisition systems (DASs) can cover this wide temperature range and ensure reproducible measurements, even in the harshest industrial environments.
App note from Maxim Integrated on electronic devices sterilization. Link here (PDF)
Although there is considerable literature about sterilization methods and equipment, there is very little written about the impact of sterilization on electronics. This article compares popular sterilization methods and discusses their suitability for objects containing electronics.
Smart-FETs application from ON Semiconductors. Link here (PDF)
This application note describes the structure and design philosophy of ON Semiconductor High Side Smart−FETs, and serves as a guide to understand the operation of the device in specific applications. The scope of this document is limited to Smart−FETs with analog current sense output.
FAQs answered by ON Semiconductor’s application support team on the topic of current sense amplifiers. Link here (PDF)
App note from ON Semiconductors about SiPM sensors, explaining the working principle and primary performance parameters. Link here (PDF)
The Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) is a sensor that addresses the challenge of sensing, timing and quantifying low-light signals down to the single-photon level. Traditionally the province of the Photomultiplier Tube (PMT), the Silicon Photomultiplier now offers a highly attractive alternative that combines the low-light detection capabilities of the PMT while offering all the benefits of a solid-state sensor. The SiPM features low-voltage operation, insensitivity to magnetic fields, mechanical robustness and excellent uniformity of response. Due to these traits, the SensL® SiPM has rapidly gained a proven performance in the fields of medical imaging, hazard and threat detection, biophotonics, high energy physics and LiDAR.
App note from STMicroelectronics using their STM32F0 microcontrollers to playback audio stream from USB. Link here (PDF)
This application note describes a method and an example of synchronizing audio playback or audio recording with an upstream or downstream USB audio host, ensuring flawless audio listening or recording using only internal MCU resources.
Focusing on specific properties of USB microcontrollers from the STM32F0 family, the application note describes how the CRS unit can be beneficially employed for USB audio streaming synchronization. In particular, it elaborates a method of HSI48 clock frequency trimming to compensate for timing differences due to independent USB host (computer) and device (STM32F0) clock domains.
STMicroelectronics’ solution for simplifying USB Type-C protection and filtering using transient voltage suppressors, common mode filtering and proper board layout. Link here (PDF)
The USB interface has been present on the market for nearly 2 decades and thanks to that, nowadays it is quite obvious for everybody to connect electronic devices in this manner. However, the presence of different types of connectors: type A, type B, mini USB, micro USB etc., makes difficult and complicated the choice of the right one. For this reason USB Type-C, a unique connector to drive audio and power data up to 5 or 10 Gbps, is now available.
Due to the fact that for its own nature a connector is a link to the outside world, it may be exposed to a lot of disturbances which can ruin the transceivers. Moreover, the high-speed links radiate therefore an efficient filter has to be used to solve antenna desense.
STMicroelectronics has developed some specific protection devices and common mode filters with optimized performance and layout.