App note: MELF resistors – The world’s most reliable and predictable, high-performing film resistors

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App note from Vishay on why MELF resistors are so successful and has no alternative in today’s application. Link here (PDF)

For more than 25 years, Vishay’s MELF resistors have successfully met the demanding requirements of the automotive industry. They offer superior SMD resistor performance in terms of accuracy, stability, reliability, and pulse load capability. The cylindrical construction of MELF devices provides an optimal power rating and pulse load capability related to the mounting space. Continuous development has led to improved long-term stability and moisture resistance, and allows high-temperature operation to + 175 °C.

App note: Understanding the characteristics of Li-ion batteries and Richtek power management solutions

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App note from Richtek on how to work with Li-ion batteries properly. Link here

Lithium-ion/polymer rechargeable batteries, which have been widely used today, have distinguished properties, but are very delicate and have to be used with extreme care. Improper use of Li-ion batteries will bring about catastrophic consequences. The incidences of burning and explosions of Li-ion batteries have often been heard. Carefully understanding their properties and adopting a right battery management method is most essential for making good use of Li-ion batteries.

App note: Driving LEDs with a PIC Microcontroller

An App note from OSRAM on an Intelligent control circuitry example using a PIC Microcontroller. Link here (PDF)

Nowadays, applications increasingly make use of LEDs as a replacement for traditional light bulbs. For example, LEDs are frequently used in the design of automobile tail lights, signal lights, traffic signals, and variable message signs.

LEDs provide several advantages over traditional light bulbs, such as smaller size and longer life. In many applications, the LEDs must be driven with intelligent control circuitry. According to the task at hand, this control circuitry must be able to fulfill various functions and tasks.

App note: Package-related thermal resistance of LEDs

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App note from OSRAM on thermal resistance for LEDs and IREDs (IR emitting diodes). Link here (PDF)

In order to achieve the expected reliability, lifetime and optimal performance of LEDs, especially for high-power LEDs, appropriate thermal management is of the utmost importance. One of the key parameters for good thermal management is the temperature of the active semiconductor layer designated as the junction temperature. The manufacturer’s recommended maximum junction temperature should therefore not be exceeded during operation, in order to prevent damage to the component. Ideally, the junction temperature should be kept as low as possible for the given application.

Due to the design principle of the LEDs, the junction temperature of the LED can not be measured directly.

App note: Increasing accuracy in feedback circuits and voltage dividers with thin film chip resistor arrays

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App note from Vishay on using chip resistors to achieve long-term stability. Link here (PDF)

Thin film chip resistor arrays consist of several resistors of equal or different values combined in one package. During the manufacturing processes and the device’s lifecycle, all the particular resistors virtually experience identical conditions, which allow the specification of their relative tolerances, relative temperature coefficients, and even a relative resistance drift. These relative parameters provide precise and stable resistance ratios and far better long-term stability of feedback circuits and voltage dividers compared to discrete resistors.

App note: Custom magnetics – What are they and when do you need them?

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Consideration factors before going to custom magnetic request from manufacturer, an app note from Vishay. Link here (PDF)

There are many manufacturers that claim they build custom magnetics. However, there is often confusion as to what constitutes custom magnetics and whether or not a designer actually needs them or can afford them. This article will clarify what custom magnetics are, help designers determine if they are needed, and explain how to engage with a custom magnetics supplier.

App note: Simplify home audio systems With the PCM9211 – A versatile audio interface transceiver

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A digital interface PCM9211 from Texas Instruments app note. Link here (PDF)

Large-screen HDTVs are selling in huge volumes over last few years, primarily driven by amazing improvements in picture quality & form factor (thinner screens). The form factor constraints from having skinny screens result in tiny built-in speakers that are undersized, under-powered and are typically aimed at wrong direction. Hence sound bars have exploded in popularity as complementary audio system by providing a sound experience that more closely matches the TV’s life-like pictures. In addition, with release of HDMI 2.1 specification we finally have a nocompromise audio solution for HDMI as part of the eARC [enhanced Audio Return Channel]. This tech note reviews eARC and simplified Sound Bar design using PCM9211 and how to interface eARC signals with PCM9211.

App note: Noise suppression for wireless headphones

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Wireless headphone interference investigation from muRata. Link here

Recently, the popularity of wireless headsets has been growing as the number of situations where people “play sports while listening to music” increases.

Bluetooth is frequently used for communication between smartphones and headsets. However, audio can skip due to communication errors, so countermeasures are required.

This is an extremely important point of user evaluation and a difficult issue to resolve.
Here we depict an actual case to explain the interference mechanism in the device which causes the audio to skip, and key points for improvement to introduce useful countermeasures for solving the problem.
We hope that you will use it as a guide to help your design work proceed more smoothly.