App note: Low-side self-protected MOSFET

an_on_AND8202-D

Integrated fault protected MOSFET app note from ON Semiconductors. Link here (PDF)

The ever increasing density and complexity of automotive and industrial control electronics requires integration of components, wherever possible, so as to conserve space, reduce cost, and improve reliability. Integration of protection features with power switches continues to drive new product development. The often open environments of automotive and industrial electronics, subject to severe voltage transients, high power and high inductance loads, numerous external connections, and human intervention force the requirement of fault protection circuitry. Advancements in power MOSFET processing technology afford an economical marriage of protection features, such as current limitation, and standard MOSFET power transistor switches. This paper describes the technology and operation of ON Semiconductor’s HDPlus monolithic low-side smart MOSFET family.

App note: Capacitive sensing: Direct vs remote liquid-level sensing performance analysis

an_ti_snoa935a

Capacitive liquid level sensing method comparison discussed in this app note from Texas Instruments. Link here (PDF)

Capacitive-based liquid level sensing is making its way into the consumer, industrial, and automotive markets due to its system sensitivity, flexibility, and low cost. With using TI’s capacitive sensing technology, the system flexibility allows designers to have the choice of placing the sensors directly on the container (direct sensing) or in close proximity to the container (remote sensing). Each configuration has its own advantages and disadvantages. This application note highlights the system differences and performance of direct and remote sensing to provide guidance in how capacitive-based liquid-level sensing is affected.

App note: Measuring liquid levels using hall effect sensors

an_infineon_liquid_lvl_measurement

App note from Infineon on methods used in liquid level measurement and how contactless hall effect sensors are the right choice for the job. Link here (PDF)

This application note is dedicated to liquid level sensing using non-contacting magnetic sensor technology. First, an overview of some liquid level sensor application requirements are given. Next, we will introduce some of the solutions that are employed today and are researched for future systems, including both contacting techniques as well as non-contacting methods. Magnetic sensing turns out to be a comparably easy and robust solution to tackle the problem and Infineon’s linear Hall sensor portfolio is presented. Different design aspects of a magnetic liquid level sensor, including magnetic circuit designs, are discussed. The last section introduces some of Infineon’s Hall effect sensors that are suitable for use in fuel level sensing.

App note: Aluminum electrolytic capacitors design for long operational life

an_KEMET_long_life_electrolytic

App note from KEMET on long life electrolytic capacitors. Link here (PDF)

The service life for high quality power supplies and automotive power electronics is often limited by electrolytic capacitors’ operational life (Lop). Very long life (> 20 years at temperature up to 75C) is possible to be achieved by choosing capacitors with optimized design. Type of electrolyte, capacitors lid design, sealing method and rubber material quality, are important factors which determine the Lop.

App note: Comparison of ceramic and tantalum capacitors

 

an_kemet_ceramic_tantalum

App note from KEMET about the replaceability between ceramic and tantalum capacitors to each other. Link here (PDF)

Ceramic capacitors have a multitude of dielectric types available and each of these types is characterized by their sensitivities to temparature, but not to voltage or time. This paper compares the X7R, X6S, or X5R dielectric types of ceramic capacitors with tantalum capacitors. Ceramic capacitors constructed witht these dielectrics offer moderate dielectric constants with moderate temperature and voltage sensitivities. They overlap with tantalum capacitors in capacitance/voltage range offerings. In many cases, the solder pad geometry allows swapping of ceramic 0603. 0805, 1206 or 1210 chip sizes with “J”, “R”, “A”, or “B” case tantalums, respectively.

App note: Trends in integrated circuits that affect ESD protection requirements

an_on_AND8309-D

A quick lookup on the ESD protection evolution of ICs in this app note from ON Semiconductor. Link here (PDF)

The stunning progress in integrated circuit capability over the last 40 years is most succinctly expressed by Moore’s Law; “Every 2 years the number of transistors that can be economically manufactured in an integrated circuit will double”. The secret to this success has been the shrinking of integrated circuit feature sizes in all three dimensions. To maintain circuit reliability with the smaller dimensions the operating voltage of integrated circuits has been steadily declining. This trend will continue in the future, as documented in the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors. As the working voltage for integrated circuits decreases the voltage at which circuit damage can occur also decreases.

The move to smaller geometries has also prompted fundamental changes in IC technologies that have had an adverse effect on the intrinsic ability of the technologies to survive ESD stress. A prime example is the evolution of nMOS transistors in CMOS technologies.

App note: Circuit configuration options for TVS diodes

an_on_AND8231-D

Different TVS configuration usage app note from ON Semiconductor. Link here (PDF)

Transient Voltage Suppression (TVS) protection is important because EMI and ESD can disturb the operation of the system, produce permanent damage or cause latent damage that will eventually cause a failure. Avalanche TVS diodes and diode arrays are available in a number of different circuit configurations to protect electronic circuits from surge voltages. This document will analyze the attributes and trade-offs of different circuit configurations created with avalanche TVS and diode array protection devices.

App note: How to select an ambient light sensor for your end equipment

an_ti_sbea006

Another application note from Texas Instruments about ambient light sensors and how to effectively use them. Link here (PDF)

Generally, when someone thinks of trying to design a system with an ambient light sensor there are four main concerns or problems that need to be addressed. The most important features of an ambient light sensor are spectral response, power, size, and range of lux measurement.

App note: How to isolate signal and power in isolated CAN systems

an_ti_slla386

CAN system isolation app note from Texas Instruments, Link here (PDF)

With the increase in the usage of signal isolation in many industrial and automotive applications, the need for isolated power has also increased. The benefits of isolation are lost if the power supplies on either side of the isolation barrier are simply shorted. At the same time, if the isolated power sub-systems are not designed carefully, it affects the overall system performance like temperature rise due to poor power transfer efficiency, data corruption due to emissions, and so on. To simplify the design process of isolated CAN sub-systems, this document provides various options (discrete and integrated) to isolate CAN signals and power.

App note: Detecting selfie sticks using TI audio jack switches TS3A227E and TS3A225E

an_ti_scda014

Old app note from Texas Instruments on smart phone selfie sticks button detection. Link here (PDF)

Selfie sticks are becoming as common of a smart phone accessory as a pair of headphones. Because of the selfie stick’s increasing popularity, smart phone manufacturers need to be able to accommodate the accessory. This report describes the procedure required for a smart phone to detect when a selfie stick accessory is inserted into a smart phone’s audio jack receptacle using TI audio jack switches TS3A227E and TS3A225E. It shows how these devices respond to common selfie-stick implementations and how to adjust the audio jack switch’s register settings to accommodate both traditional audio accessories as well as the new selfie stick accessory.