AM Radio transmissions are based on a carrier signal which is modulated by the audio signal. It’s a very basic principle but prone to noise from the environment. Using the ESP32 it is really simple to generate an analog signal using the built-in DACs. With the provided code here just a wire as an antenna has to be connected to the pin 25 of the ESP32. The transmission will end up on the AM frequency ~835kHz.
A few days ago I started playing with some idea I had from a few weeks already, using a Raspberry Pi Zero W to make a mini WiFi deauthenticator: something in my pocket that periodically jumps on all the channels in the WiFi spectrum, collects information about the nearby access points and their connected clients and then sends a deauthentication packet to each one of them, resulting in some sort of WiFi jammer on the 802.11 level. As an interesting “side effect” of this jammer (the initial intent was purely for the lulz) is that the more it deauths, the higher the changes to also sniff WPA2 handshakes.
Typically, a lab power supply can only operate within a single quadrant. Take a positive voltage power supply for example, it can only output or source current. If any attempt is made trying to sink current into the power supply by connecting a voltage source with a higher voltage than the output voltage of the power supply, the power supply would lose regulation since it cannot sink any current and thus is unable to bring down and regulate the voltage at its output terminals.
The Agilent 66312A dynamic measurement DC source however is a two-quadrant power supply, it not only can source up to 2A of current between 0 and 20V, but also can sink up to 1.2A or 60% of its rated output current as well. Although lacking some key functionality of a source measure unit (SMU), Agilent 66312A can nevertheless be used in similar situations where both current sourcing and sinking capabilities are needed.
Another application notes from Richtek this time on LED lamps flickering. Link here
Applying LEDs in offline retrofit lamps seems straightforward, but should be done with care to achieve similar light quality as the conventional lamp that the user is trying to replace. Light flicker is one of the aspects that need to be considered carefully during LED lamp design to avoid customer complaints from the field. This application note explains the LED lamp flicker phenomena in relation to driver topology and LED characteristics, and provides solutions based on several Richtek LED drivers in combination with specific LED strings. A practical flicker measurement method is explained as well, that can be used to measure light flicker in LED lamps.
Richtek app note for Li-ion battery definitions and gauge introduction. Link here
SOC is defined as the status of available energy in the battery and usually expressed as percentages. Because the available energy change depends on different charging/discharging currents, temperatures and aging effects, the SOC could be defined more clearly as ASOC (Absolute State-Of-Charge) and RSOC (Relative State-Of-Charge). Typically, the range of RSOC is from 0% to 100%, a fully charged battery’s RSOC is always 100% and a fully discharged battery has 0% RSOC. The ASOC is a reference calculated by Design Capacity which is a fixed capacity from when the battery is manufactured. A fully charged new battery will have 100% ASOC, but a fully charged aging battery could be less than 100% because of different charge/discharge conditions.
Battery management is part of power measurement. The fuel gauge is responsible to estimate the capacity of battery in the domain of battery management. The basic function of fuel gauge is to monitor the voltage, charge/discharge current and battery temperature, and to estimate the battery’s SOC and Full Charge Capacity (FCC) of battery. There are two classic methods to do the SOC estimation which are Open Circuit Voltage (OCV) and Coulomb Counter, respectively. The other method is dynamic voltage-based algorithm designed by RICHTEK.
There are times you find yourself looking for a relatively high voltage (100V to 200V often in my case) but low current DC power supply. I have zener diodes that are higher than 30V, which makes the lab supply useless, and filament LEDs with forward voltage over 60V. When I need to test them quickly, I used to hook up a simple rectifier circuit to a variable AC power supply (nothing more than a slidac with isolation transformer). While this gets job done, the setup is capable of supplying much too high current (1A or more), so I was always very nervous and extra careful in handling the circuit. All I need is a little HV generator that gives me around 200V DC and only capable of supplying a milliamp or less. Realizing that I do have such design available – one of the Nixie supply circuit – I just decided to put one together to use.
The 8087 chip provided fast floating point arithmetic for the original IBM PC and became part of the x86 architecture used today. One unusual feature of the 8087 is it contained a multi-level ROM (Read-Only Memory) that stored two bits per transistor, twice as dense as a normal ROM. Instead of storing binary data, each cell in the 8087’s ROM stored one of four different values, which were then decoded into two bits. Because the 8087 required a large ROM for microcode1 and the chip was pushing the limits of how many transistors could fit on a chip, Intel used this special technique to make the ROM fit. In this article, I explain how Intel implemented this multi-level ROM.
Light guide basics app note from OSRAM. Link here (PDF)
Light Guides are used wherever the light of a light source should be distributed homogeneously over a particular area, when there is a spatial distance between light source and the area which is to be illuminated.
App note from OSRAM about different approaches on LED string diagnostic in automotive. Link here (PDF)
One requirement especially in automotive applications is the diagnosis of failures in functions and systems. Therefore light functions realized with LEDs like break light, daytime running light, low and high beam may require a diagnostics function. This application note describes some items which have to be taken into account, when a diagnostic function for a LED string or a multi LED module has to be realized.
Dr. Scott Baker has developed an adapter that allows you to use Playstation 2 analog controllers on an Atari 5200, that is available on gitHub:
This adapter allows you to use a PS2 controller on an Atari 5200 gaming console. The 5200 was notable at the time for its use of analog joysticks, but the controllers that shipped with the console are pretty lousy. They don’t self-center and they have a mushy annoying feel to them. The fire buttons aren’t very tactile in nature. The controller in my opinion just doesn’t feel or work good. Nevertheless, you have to give the Atari 5200 some respect for trying to be a pioneer in the technology.
As such, several solutions have been proposed for using alternate controllers. There are adapters for Atari 2600 digital sticks, adapters for analog PC joysticks, my own handheld controller, etc. I decided to adapt the basic technique of my handheld controller to a PS2 adapter.