In this article, I reverse-engineer the priority encoder in the ARM1 processor. By examining the chip layout provided by the Visual ARM1 project, I have determined how this circuit works and created a schematic.
The ARM1 chip is the ancestor of the extremely popular ARM processors used in most smart phones. The ARM1 is a good choice for reverse engineering since it was designed in 1985 and its simple RISC silicon circuits are easier to understand than modern processors. This article jumps into the chip details; if you want an overview of the ARM1 internals, start with my first article on reverse engineering the ARM1.
Today I finally got round to building a nice little RF probe kit from Rex, w1rex, the Tuna King over at QRPme.
I took the well-executed PCB which – unusually for Rex – had through hole mounting for the components rather than the ‘Limerick’ construction that recently I’ve come to associate with him…
Following the excellent instructions, I whittled away the PCB at the business end, to make the probe easier to probe and poke into awkward places, then added the four components…
How can you count bits in hardware? In this article, I reverse-engineer the circuit used by the ARM1 processor to count the number of set bits in a 16-bit field, showing how individual transistors form multiplexers, which are combined into adders, and finally form the bit counter. The ARM1 is the ancestor of the processor in most cell phones, so you may have a descendent of this circuit in your pocket.
Mullard 3-3 is quiet popular 3W tube amplifier introduced by Mullard Ltd in 1956. A schematic and design detail of this amplifier is available in “Mullard Circuits for Audio Amplifiers” book and in National Valve Museum article. This amplifier is based on EF86, EL84 vacuum tubes and EZ80 full wave rectifier tube. In this project we decided to construct this original Mullard 3-3 Amplifier with some slight changes and commonly available electronic components.
In our prototype we replace EZ80 tube with 400V 5A bridge rectifier which is commonly available in many electronic spare parts shops. Also we replace EL84 with 6P14P pentode and EF86 with 6J8 pentode. Both of these valves can directly use with this circuit and those values are available for lesser price than EL84, EF86 tubes.
In this blog post, I will show you how to build a 0 to 5.8 GHz tracking generator for the HP 8566B 100 Hz to 22 GHz spectrum analyzer using off-the-shelf components for under $100. Although this tracking generator is specifically designed for my HP 8566B spectrum analyzer, the method discussed below is applicable to pretty much any spectrum analyzer that has an LO output (typically the 1st LO).
A tracking generator, as its name implies, tracks the frequency of the spectrum analyzer’s sweeping oscillator (typically 1st LO) so that the tracking generator’s frequency output matches the center frequency of the bandpass filter in spectrum analyzer’s IF stage. Thus at any given moment, the spectrum analyzer sees the same frequency input as what it is currently sweeping at. The combination of a spectrum analyzer and a tracking generator is often referred to as a scalar network analyzer (SNA).
This was a project begun last winter in the hopes of having an array of thermocouples to monitor my old woodstove when operating it. Well, I never got around to finishing it, but I have a fancy new woodstove as of this fall, and I would love to monitor its temperature curves likewise!
This BoosterPack is fancied as a baseboard plugging underneath the LaunchPad, with four holes for mounting studs in case I ever decide to fix it inside a permanent enclosure (probably one made of aluminum due to the heat). I could have pushed the Thermocouple terminal blocks out a little further to fit more launchpads, as I feel this is a bit tight. I chose a Tiva-C LP for my pics because it fits nicely but the BoosterPack is designed with low-power features, contrary to the MAX31855’s own design.
Almost every smartphone uses a processor based on the ARM1 chip created in 1985. The Visual ARM1 simulator shows what happens inside the ARM1 chip as it runs; the result (below) is fascinating but mysterious. In this article, I reverse engineer key parts of the chip and explain how they work, bridging the gap between the puzzling flashing lines in the simulator and what the chip is actually doing. I describethe overall structure of the chip and then descend to the individual transistors, showing how they are built out of silicon and work together to store and process data. After reading this article, you can look at the chip’s circuits and understand the data they store.