This application note from OSRAM describes the possible hazards of infrared LEDs (IREDs) used for lamp applications with respect to the IEC-62471 standard and how to classify IREDs according to different risk groups. Link here (PDF)
As the radiated optical power of light emitting diodes (LEDs) has increased in recent years, the issue of eye safety has received an ever-increasing amount of attention. Within this context there has been much discussion about the right safety standard either the laser standard IEC-60825 or the lamp safety standard IEC-62471 to apply to the classification of LEDs. Before mid 2006 all LED applications were covered by the IEC-60825. Today most of the LED applications are covered by the lamp standard. Other than lasers, lamps are only generally defined in this standard as sources made to produce optical radiation. Lamp devices may also contain optical components like lenses or reflectors. Examples are lensed LEDs or reflector type lamps which may include lens covers as well. The status quo is, that for different applications of LEDs, like data transmission or irradiation of objects, different standards have to be used: data transmission IEC-60825 & lamp applications IEC-62471. Both safety standards do not cover general exposure scenarios and are not legally binding.
In this post we look at a new MSP430 FRAM based device – the MSP430FR2433. It has 15K of FRAM, 0.5K of Info FRAM and 4K bytes of SRAM. As well as the memory, there are 3 serial communications interfaces, a multichannel 10 bit ADC and 3 timers. All of this in a tiny low cost package – which makes an almost perfect Forth Computer.
The MSP430FR2433 from Texas Instruments costs about $1.36 in volume – and $2.58 in 1 off.
With a little creative design, low cost parts and a tiny 2 layer pcb we are en-route to offering a Forth Computer which could cost as little as $5 when produced in volume.
I’m using the tiny and inexpensive Nordic Semiconductor nRF24L01+ transceiver (see “Tutorial: Nordic Semiconductor nRF24L01+ with the Freescale FRDM-K64F Board“) in many projects: it costs less than $3 and allows me to communicate with a proprietary 2.4GHz protocol in a low power way (see “IoT: FreeRTOS Down to the Micro Amps“). I have that transceiver now running with the tinyK20 board too.
Ray Wang has published a new project called OpenGarage, an open-source garage door opener based on ESP8266 and the Blynk app:
Today I am very excited to introduce you to OpenGarage — an open-source, universal garage door opener built using the ESP8266 WiFi chip and the Blynk app. I’ve wanted to finish this project for a while, as there have been multiple occasions where I left the house in a hurry and forgot to close my garage door, or locked myself out of the house, or had to let a friend or handyman in while I was away. Having a WiFi-based garage door opener (which I can access remotely using my mobile phone) would be super convenient. Recently as I started learning about ESP8266, I found it to be the perfect platform to help me complete this project.
Here’s a geeky desk sockets project from Luke. He writes:
I wanted a few more functions than just a desk USB Hub.
Looking on the net i came across this youtube video . This was the type of thing i was looking for but it had far too many functions and too large.
I decided to list the things i would like:
1) USB Hub (powered)
2) SD card reader
3) Basic adjustable psu
4) Mains socket
I decided rather than making something scratch i would see if there was anything available i could just modify to fit all my criteria.
This is a pretty rare combo: using a premium PCB package with the budget board house.
Generally these small run PCB houses provide DRU and CAM files for EAGLE design rule checking and Gerber outputs, respectively. Because I’m using Altium, I had to make it up as I went along.
It gets much easier when you understand what Gerber files are. While we’re all used to standard, unified output formats that contain all of the data we need, Gerbers are very much still a holdover from manufacturing in the 80s.
When you export these, a whole bunch of files get generated. This is intimidating, but don’t panic! They all have different extensions like GBO, GTL, etc. These are all the same type of file.
Michael from Acidbourbon has built the “perfect” tea timer project. He wrote a post on his blog detailing its assembly:
Maybe you just drink coffee. Then this article is not particularly interesting for you. But if you like a cup of black or green tea once in a while you might know the problem: You prepare your tea and you let it stand for a minute too long. Then it is bitter. So the next time you use the timer functionality of your smartphone … unlock the screen, open the timer app, enter something like “3:00″ (minutes), press start, pour boiling water over the tea, wait. Then your phone beeps like crazy while you are fumbling around with the hot and wet teabag you want to dispose of. Finally you unlock your beeping phone with your wet fingers, open the timer app again and silence it. Pure stress.
Of course that is a first world problem and you could just deal with it. Or if you are a tinkerer, like me, you might want to build yourself the perfect tea timer. The desired properties are:
Extremely simple user interface
When finished it plays a short melody and goes to standby by itself
Long battery life
Vinod writes, “This is an FM transmitter directly made from STM32F407 discovery. It transmits the wav file stored in internal flash via FM at 100MHz.
The modulation over here is happening by a tricky feedback from the analog output of the same mcu to the crystal oscillator there by disturbing the crystal frequency and creating frequency modulation.
It works nicely than expected an getting a very good range and comparable to normal single transistor FM transmitter.
Application note from Littelfuse about their (IS) intrinsically safe fuse which doesn’t produce sufficient heat that could trigger sparks which are dangerous in an explosive environment. Link here (PDF)
Gases, petroleum products, and airborne dusts tend, by their very nature, to be explosive if sources of sparks or excess heat are present. Over the years, these hazards have led to some catastrophic losses of life and property. In response to this hazardous potential, regulatory bodies around the world, including Underwriters Laboratories, Inc., have worked to establish and refine a standard that will minimize the hazards associated with these working environments. UL 913, which was originally issued in 1971, establishes the standard for “Intrinsically Safe Apparatus and Associated Apparatus for Use in Class I, II, and III, Division 1, Hazardous (Classified) Locations.”
The purpose of this standard is to specify requirements for the construction and testing of electrical apparatus, or parts of such apparatus, having circuits that are not capable of causing ignition in Division 1 Hazardous (Classified) Locations as defined in Article 500 of the National Electrical Code, ANSI/NFPA 70. Limiting exposure to high surface temperatures and requirements for dust-tight enclosures are key aspects of the UL913 standard.
Solid State device and circuits for controlling LEDs lighting, replacing conventional incandescent lamps, an App note from Littlefuse. Link here (PDF)
Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) are fast becoming the most popular lighting option. Industry forecasts anticipate the market will continue to expand at an annual rate of 20% from 2011 to 2016, with the greatest growth coming in the commercial and industrial lighting sectors. As incandescent lamps have been made largely obsolete, given the U.S. government’s mandate to save energy, they have frequently been replaced by LEDs due to their long life (typically 25,000 hrs.) and the ease of adapting them to many different socket and shape requirements. However, LED lighting control presents a few problems not encountered with incandescent lamps. For example, with much less current from the LED load, normal types of triacs may be challenged in terms of latching and holding current characteristics.
Triacs make up the heart of AC light dimming controls. Triacs used in dimmers have normally been characterized and specified for incandescent lamp loads, which have high current ratings for both steady-state conditions and initial high in-rush currents, as well as very high end-of-life surge current when a filament ruptures.
Because they are diodes, LEDs have much lower steady-state current than incandescent lamps, and their initial turn-on current can be much higher for a few microseconds of each half-cycle of AC line voltage. Therefore, a spike of current can be seen at the beginning of each AC half-cycle. Typically, the current spike for an AC replacement lamp is 6–8 A peak; the steady-state follow current is less than 100 mA.
Designing an AC circuit for controlling LED light output is very simple when using the new Q6008LH1LED or Q6012LH1LED Series Triacs because only a few components are required. All that is needed is a firing/triggering capacitor, a potentiometer, and a voltage breakover triggering device.